OSHA

Confined Space Entry

Designed for municipal water, waste water and storm water utility employees. Identifies and addresses common city/ county permit required confined space situations rarely covered by other programs.  Details safe work practices for most types of municipal confined space entry situations. Defines Typical Types of Water Utility Spaces:  In addition to man holes and lift stations, the program addresses open and closed water tanks, full or emptied aeration tanks, contact chambers, storm drains, junction boxes and many other types of spaces not typically addressed. Hazards: A study of common confined space hazards is conducted to include hazardous atmosphere, engulfment, entrapment, mechanical/machine 

movement, electric shock, chemical exposure and others. Gas Detection:  

This part details the key gases to identify and/or monitor, their 

properties including flammability, toxicity, vapor density, etc.  Common gas detector features, calibration and field testing methods are demonstrated. Ventilation: Discusses types of ventilation including general 

dispersion and local exhaust ventilation and the occasional use of multiple ventilation machines.   

Basic Entry Equipment: Ladders, boson’s chairs and secondary “working winches” are examples of 

equipment discussed for actual entry into various confined space configurations.  These systems may 

share tripods, davits, booms or special tank mounted gear used as entry gear or as a focal point for 

attaching gear. Fall Arrest/Retrieval Equipment: This critical safety gear is primary to the confined space entry permit process.  This confirms the ability to arrest a fall, but also to execute a “non-entry” rescue which brings the entrant to safety and 

reduces the potential for rescuers to be additional victims.  Duties of Entry Team Members: The specific tasks assigned to each team member are discussed.        

Confined Space Entry Permit Form:  

As sample permit form is provided.  

Both agency and instructor provided forms are follo

wed throughout the course.  

The form has sections to name the team, confirm emergency communication ability, check 

equipment, complete hazard analysis, confirm the placement of primary entry gear, check PPE, enter 

gas detection readings and additional information. When all sections are satisfactorily completed, students are shown how the permit is issued by the entry supervisor at the end of a pre-entry briefing.  Virtual Exercises:  

As a final exercise, students are broken into teams and each team is assigned a particular type of space.  Using the sample permit form, the individual student groups have to perform a virtual entry using all of the skills recently learned (or re-educated on) in the class.     

Competent Person

Designed specifically for public works employees, municipal water, waste water, and storm water utility. Identifies and addresses common excavating hazards and details protective measures and safe work practices for all phases of the excavating job.  Work Zone Set-up:  

Promotes the use of temporary traffic control, work zone barriers  such  as  barricades,  caution  tape,  hurricane  fencing  etc.  and  the marking of objects and other internal hazards.  

Underground  Utility  Location: 

Reviews  state  law  and  internal  agency procedure,  but  adds  troubleshooting  techniques  and 

the  use  of  additional measures helpful in locating and avoiding underground utility damage such as 

pot  holing,  use  of  vac-trucks,  ground  penetrating  radar  and  other  soft  dig techniques. Hazard  Analysis: Use  an  excavating  daily  checklist  to  conduct  a  thorough 

work   zone   hazard   analysis   to   identify   incidental   hazards,   deficiencies, improper crew activities, and other safety issues prior to commencing with the dig. 

Mobile Equipment Hazards: This section covers required operator training, internal work zone equipment traffic control, safe mounting, seat belts, no-rider 

rules and prohibited uses, imperative operator, helper/spotter and pedestrian safety rules, rigging and trailering. Cave-in Prevention:  

Identifies the acceptable methods of preventing cave-in including sloping, shoring, shielding and the use of trench boxes.  Other cave-in prevention and open trench rules are discussed. Protecting Exposed Utilities:  Details issues and methods related to supporting various 

underground utilities after they are exposed.  Includes the call for re-locates to identify unknown objects discovered during excavating.  Discusses “safe to underground utility” back filling protocols and protection for recently covered areas.   

Unattended Works Zones:  This segment promotes extra diligence when preparing a site that will be left unattended for short or longer duration's.  This include the use of hurricane fencing, barricades, steel sheeting and other tools and supp

lies. Excavation Emergencies:  

Avoiding emergencies is the goal, but in the event of a cave-in, steps to take is attempting to rescue are 

discussed.  This includes hazard analysis, identifying of and secondary cave-in potential and other do’s and Don'ts. Virtual Exercises: Students are tested by reviewing a collection of slides in a “what’s wrong with this picture” format.  This summarizes the important concepts discussed throughout the course and concludes the program.

Lock-out/Tag-Out

Reviews a recent history of public sector lock out tag out hazards and 

common accidents: Reviewed as case studies  various incidents applicable to 1910.147(a)(1)(i), the standard that covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected “energization” or start-up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to 

employees.  Areas covered include: 

1. Maintenance:  

2. Repair  

3. Adjustment

4. Parts replacement 

5. Strainer change out 

6. Regular cleaning  

7. Mechanical or operational problems “The jam!”. 

A Total Program Approach:

 Combines the principles of Lock out Tag out with worksite safety engineering, safe work practices, other protective devices/products, special clothing and proper use of personal protective equipment. 

Defines Hazardous Energy Sources and Lock-out/tag-out Concepts 

Applicable to City Work Places:  

They include:  

1.  Electrical Work –Electrocution/Flash 

2.  Electrical/hydraulic actuation of equipment put in motion 

3.  Fluid Flow/Release: Chemicals, hydraulic fluid, high pressure air and/or water 

4.  Stored energy – unexpected movement of springs, hinged structures, objects on tracks, casters or rollers and/or suspended objects 

Products and Devices:  Displays many isolation and or lock out devices available. Virtual Exercises:   

The final segment of the course uses virtual exercises in an interactive fashion where numerous situations are presented and segmented 

groups of attendees must solve the hazardous energy

issues. 

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  This program trained workers who are required to wear personal protective equipment on how to do the following: • Use protective equipment properly, • Be aware of when personal protective equipment is necessary, • Know what kind of protective equipment is necessary, • Understand the limitations of personal protective equipment in protecting workers from injury, • Put on, adjust, wear, and take off personal protective equipment, and • Maintain protective equipment properly. OSHA’s general personal protective equipment requirements were covered that mandate that employers conduct a hazard assessment of their workplaces to determine what hazards are present that require the use of protective equipment,  Employers are required to train each employee who must use PPE. Employees must be trained to know at least the following:  

  • When PPE is necessary.
  • What PPE is necessary. 
  • How to properly put on, take off, adjust and wear the      PPE.
  • The limitations of the PPE.
  • Proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of      PPE.

Employers should make sure that each employee demonstrates an understanding of the PPE
 

 Certificates are issued for attendees that pass the course. This program trains workers who are required to wear personal protective equipment on how to do the following: • Use protective equipment properly, • Be aware of when personal protective equipment is necessary, • Know what kind of protective equipment is necessary, • Understand the limitations of personal protective equipment in protecting workers from injury, • Put on, adjust, wear, and take off personal protective equipment, and • Maintain protective equipment properly.  OSHA’s general personal protective equipment requirements were covered that mandate that employers conduct a hazard assessment of their workplaces to determine what hazards are present that require the use of protective equipment. Areas of instruction included assessing your workplace to determine if hazards are present that require the use of personal protective equipment. If such hazards are present, how to select protective equipment and require workers to use it, communicate your protective equipment selection decisions to your workers, and select personal protective equipment that properly fits your workers.  Gear covered included:    Eye Protection, Head Protection, Chaps and other Leg Protection, Bloodborn Pathogens Gear ,  Hand Protection, Hoods, Hearing Protection,  Full Body Wear,  Foot Wear, Fall Protection, Respiratory Protection, Respiratory Fit Testing     

Inspecting Municipal Properties

  This first segment starts with basic regulatory compliance by identifying OSHA required features, standard work place safety issues and desirable/undesirable working conditions. It designates areas where use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is mandatory and recommends signage and markings. Special areas and conditions are reviewed such as work benches, chemical storage locations, compressed gas cylinder stations, overhead cranes, adequate lighting, adequate ventilation, "no-storage" areas, stacking and shelving, indoor fall and falling object hazards and many more. Special facility issues are included such as water/waste water plant indoor locations. Out door workplace safety issues are reviewed in the second segment such as entrances and exits, gates and signage, driveways, lots, vehicle and equipment parking locations, inventory and material staging areas, storage racks, fueling and wash down areas and more. Again, an emphasis on OSHA compliance, standard work place safety and desirable/undesirable working conditions is made. Also reviewed are perimeter security, “authorized personnel/vehicle only” locations and internal vehicle/pedestrian/equipment traffic patterns. The third segment of the program transitions to public access areas such as city halls, community centers, amphitheaters, public parking lots, sidewalks, bike paths, play grounds and tot lots, water front areas including docks and piers. Excluded is roads safety issues, which is covered under another program. A proactive approach to property maintenance is recommended where inspection and repair resources may be limited. A collection of inspection check list forms donated by many participating public agencies is made available to attendees. Key sample forms are review to educate the audience on how inspection tools can aid in the identification and maintenance and repair process.  

Tree Working Safety

Chainsaw, trimming, felling, limbing, bucking, wood chipper, bucket truck use.

 After natural disasters, it is not uncommon to call on new operators (from other divisions even) to assist as back-up tree work crews as primary tree work specialist fatigue or are rotated on shifts.  This program would orient these additional workers as standby crews.   Designed specifically for municipal public works, streets/roads, parks, water utility and/or other city or county employees who engage in tree work, are exposed to common tree work hazards and the risks associated with tree work machines and tools. Also recommended for division supervisors, agency safety officers, department safety coordinators, and equipment trainers. Accident Case Studies:  As an introduction, a number of recent city/ county employee accident cases are reviewed.  Each represents a likely severe injury or fatality scenario related to tree trimming, felling and damaged or felled tree removal.     Personal Protective Equipment and Clothing:  Types of chain saw chaps, gloves, hard hats, shoes, eye wear and other protective gear is featured. This segment continues to discuss acceptable clothing.  Chain Saw Safety:  We conduct an in depth review of safe work practices related to chain saws including choosing the right saw, maintenance, proper use, avoiding kick backs, trouble shooting and stowing.   Bucket Trucks:  Safe operation of aerial baskets and other high reach equipment is covered including positioning, stability and machine/operator limitations. Tree Trimming/Felling/Limbing/Bucking:  This section details pre-cut hazard assessment and felling plans.  It continues by demonstrating safe technique for most aspects of tree work from trimming and thinning all the way to bucking (final log sectioning) for removal. Power Line Issues:  Risks related to high voltage wires are covered including close proximity to above ground wires and downing of power wires by felling whole trees or dropping limbs.  It illustrates how tree limbs are a perfect conductor of high voltage power.   Wood Chippers:  Safe positioning, limb sizing, insertion direction and danger zones related to mulching or chipping machines is covered. Other Hazards:  Heat stress, lightning, poisonous plants, insects/ bees and other hazards incidental to tree work are presented.                                                             Field Exercise Part: A field exercise can be conducted where select or all individuals perform various segments of actual “hands-on” tree work.